HOMO LAQUEN

HOMO LAQUEN

*Purnomo “janenge”

Sesuai dengan konsep Islam, manusia adalah makhluk yang paling mulia daripada makhluk Tuhan lainnya, ia adalah makhluk yang berfikir, yang memiliki tiga dimensi (badan, akal, dan ruh), manusia dalam pertumbuhannya dipengaruhi faktor keturunan dan lingkungan.  Manusia memiliki ego (nafs). Ego adalah bentuk ke-aku-an manusia sehingga layak disebut manusia. Ego adalah kata lain dari “aku”, dan karena ada aku (i am), maka yang lain (the others) ada. Ego adalah kesadaran akan aku yang tidak dimiliki oleh makhluk selain manusia. Hewan ada tetapi tidak menyadari eksistensinya oleh sebab itu ia tidak mecukupi prasyarat sebagai subjek yang berhak menyandang predikat aku. Mereka, makhluk yang lain selain manusia disebut “apa” bukan “siapa”. Manusia sebagai aku dengan keterbukaan dan pengalamannya memberikan bukti bahwa aku merupakan inti dari kepribadian yang menjadi landasan hidup yang tidak bisa digantikan dengan apapun. Keterbukaan dan pengalaman sebagai aku akan eksis dan benar-benar otentik jika sudah berinteraksi dengan manusia lain. Dimana keotentikan manusia akan menjadi nyata sebagai aku bukan orang lain.

Menurut Nicolaus D. Manusia adalah bhineka tetapi tunggal. Bhineka karena ia adalah jasmani dan rohani akan tetapi tunggal karena jasmani dan rohani merupakan satu barang. Oleh karena itu Manusia juga disebut makhluk yang unik, makhluk yang multi talenta. Namun, sesuai kodratnya sebagai makhluk sosial ia memerlukan manusia yang lain dan itu pasti. Aristoteles menyebut manusia sebagai zoon politicon atau hewan yang bermasyarakat, hewan yang sangat berpotensi dalam bersosial. Ada beragam jenis interaksi antara manusia dalam kehidupan sehari-hari mulai dari laki-laki dengan perempuan, guru dengan muridnya, penguasa dengan budaknya dan lain sebagainya. Ini membuktikan bahwa manusia membutuhkan orang lain ia tidak bisa hidup sendiri. Dalam berinteraksi manusia dengan manusia lain tentu memerlukan instrumen yang bisa mengekspresikan rasa, maksud dan tujuannya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup, yaitu dengan bahasa. Bahasa adalah media komunikasi yang paling mudah untuk difahami meskipun terkadang terdapat banyak kekurangan dan sering menimbulkan multi interpretasi yang berujung pada kesalah fahaman – tergantung siapa yang mengatakan dan siapa yang dituju, disamping itu  kontek dan ekspresi juga menentukan makna yang terkandung dalam bahasa tersebut. Inilah sebabnya kenapa tidak jarang pendengar atau pembaca yang salah memahami pesan atau makna objektif yang hendak disampaikan oleh sang penutur atau penulis. Kata atau bahasa yang sama namun disampaikan oleh subjek yang berbeda maka akan menimbulkan makna yang berbeda pula. ” Aku tunggu kamu besok” ini merupakan salah satu contoh kalimat yang sangat sederhana. Kalimat itu mengandung banyak arti, bisa jadi sebuah ancaman seperti perkataan lawan dan bisa juga bermakna janji antara teman dekat. contoh lain yang sering kita dengar ialah kata jancok. sekilas, kata ini memang  mempunyai konotasi yang jelek tidak ada nilai etiknya. Namun, sebenarnya tidak demikian. Jancok hanyalah kata ekspresi yg maknanya tidak pasti. Ia lahir dari konteks sehingga bersifat kondisional. Kata ini digunakan untuk menyapa oleh teman dekat, sedangkan lawan menggunakan kata ini untuk mengekspresikan kebenciannya terhadap lawannya. Kata ini seolah terbelah menjadi dua makna. Yang pertama adalah tanda keakraban dengan teman sejawat. Yang kedua adalah ekspresi kemarahan terhadap seseorang atau suatu kejadian. Kata ini adalah konsep tanpa kepastian. Seperti dekonstruksi yang selalu mengalir mencari arti tanpa final. . Seorang filsuf asal Austria, Ludwig Wittgenstein, pernah berpendapat, bahwa bahasa lahir dari suatu konteks. Konteks itu disebutnya sebagai permainan bahasa (language games). Di dalam permainan bahasa, ada aturan yang harus dipatuhi. Makna suatu kata atau suatu aktivitas selalu harus dilihat dalam konteks permainan bahasanya.

Menurut Wibowo, bahasa adalah sistem simbol bunyi yang bermakna dan berartikulasi (dihasilkan oleh alat ucap) yang bersifat arbitrer dan konvensional, yang dipakai sebagai alat berkomunikasi oleh sekelompok manusia untuk melahirkan perasaan dan pikiran. Pernyataan ini menjelaskan bahwa bahsa dan manusia (otak) mempunyai keterikatan yang sangat erat karena bahasa tidak hanya sekedar cara manusia memgekspresikan perasaannya namun karena bahasa merupakan ciri khas manusia. Bahasa adalah wahana yang memberikan kita kemampuan untuk mengomunikasikan makna-makna kita kepada orang lain dan karenanya membangun keteraturan sosial. Tidak ada manusia yang tidak berbahasa. Dalam tulisan ini  bahasa tidak hanya diartikan sebatas bahasa verbal, namun lebih daripada itu. Bahasa yang dimaksud disini meliputi bahasa tubuh dan sistem tanda dan simbol yang kemudian ilmu ini berkembang menjadi semiotik dan semantik karena disiplin ilmu ini tidak lepas dari kajian bahasa. Bahasa seperti yang dikatakan Wibowo sangat mempengaruhi fikiran manusia. Bahasa mampu mengkondisikan fikiran manusia. Vigotsky mengatakan yang senada dengan ini, bahwa bahasa dan pikiran manusia saling memengaruhi, artinya antara dan pikiran tidak bisa dipisahkan satu sama yang lainnya. Bahasa atau kata-kata merupakan media untuk memahami dunia serta digunakan sebagai proses berfikir. sedangkan pemahaman terhadap suatu bahasa merupakan hasil dari pikiran manusia.

 

 

By. Jhon Crew LB

Angkatan 2015 (Aktifis PMII)

 

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