Sultan Baabullah “Tokoh Perlawaanan Imperialisme dari Indonesia Timur”

Oleh : Moch. Ali Mutawakkil

Penulis dan pembaca mungkin sudah mengenal dengan Tokoh perlawanan Imperialisme semisal Diponegoro, Imam Bonjol, Kapitan Pattimura yang foto-fotonya familiar pada uang kertas Indonesia. Namun terasa asing ketika mendengar nama Sultan Baabullah yang perjuangannya dalam melawan imperialisme tidak kalah hebatnya dengan tokoh-tokoh yang telah disebutkan tadi.

Sultan Baabullah adalah Putra dari Sultan Khairun (1534-1570 M). Ia dinobatkan sebagai Raja menggantikan ayahnya yang dibunuh Portugis pada Tahun 1570 M. Ayahnya dibunuh saat diundang perjanjian damai oleh Portugis, hal yang juga dilakukan Belanda saat mengajak damai Pangeran Diponegoro. Bedanya, Diponegoro ditangkap dan diasingkan, sedangkan Sultan Khairun dibunuh (Sri Wintala, 2014).

Sultan Baabullah bersumpah dalam pidato penobatannya, bahwa ia akan mengusir Penjajah Portugis dari wilayah Indonesia Timur (dalam peta saat ini). Sultan Baabullah langsung mengumumkan Perang Jihad melawan imperialisme Portugis ke seluruh Negeri. Kerajaan yang selama ini menjadi pesaingnya tergerak untuk ikut seta melawan Portugis. Sultan Baabullah menjadi komando raja-raja yang berada di Sulawesi, Maluku, dan Papua. Menurut catatan Spanyol, ia berhasil mengerahkan 2.000 Kora-Kora (Kapal Perang) dan 120.000 prajurit. Jumlah pasukan yang tidak sedikit pada waktu itu (Sri Wintala, 2014).

Semangat jihad seperti itu tidak menjadi hal yang aneh bagi Sultan Baabullah, selain sejak kecil ia dididik Ilmu Agama secara mendalam, ia juga dibantu oleh sebuah Badan Penasihat atau Lembaga Adat. Badan ini beranggotakan sekelompok Ulama yang menjadi Penasihat Badan Peradilan sekaligus menjadi penasihat bagi Sultan dalam menjalankan pemerintahannya (Badri, 2006).

Perang melawan imperialisme biasa dilakukan oleh Umat Islam di Nusantara. Seperti Perang yang dikobarkan Raden Fatahillah yang berhasil mengusir Portugis dari Sunda Kelapa (Jakarta) pada Tahun 1527 M, juga Kiai Mojo (Guru Spiritual Pangeran Diponegoro) yang menggelorakan Jihad melawan imperialisme Belanda pada Tahun 1825 M, serta Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari bersama para Kiai lainnya dengan mengeluarkan Resolusi Jihad pada Tahun 1945. Umat Islam di Nusantara memang bisa bersikap lemah lembut kepada semua makhluk Tuhan, ramah dan menyenangkan. Namun juga bisa sangat menakutkan dan mematikan bagi orang-orang bengis, zalim, penjajah, imperialis juga kapitalis global.

Tak lama setelah pengumuman Jihad ke seluruh Negeri, semua pasukan di bawah komando Sultan Baabullah menyerang benteng-benteng Portugis. Satu persatu berhasil digempur dalam waktu singkat, yakni benteng Tolucco, Santo Lucia dan Santo Pedro hingga terakhir benteng Sao Paulo jatuh pada Tahun 1575 M. Perang Soya-Soya (perang pembebasan Negeri) yang ia kobarkan tersebut mampu mengusir Portugis pada 15 Juli 1575 M. Portugis pergi meninggalkan wilayah kekuasaan Ternate secara keseluruhan, setelah menginjakkan kaki pertama kali pada Tahun 1511 M dibawah kepemimpinan Fransisco Serrao (Sri Wintala, 2014).

Sultan Baabullah tidak berhenti untuk mengusir Portugis dari wilayah Indonesia Timur saja, ia berkoordinasi dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di Indonesia Barat dan Kesultanan Demak di Indonesia Tengah untuk bersama-sama mengusir Portugis dari Nusantara. Ini adalah salah satu bentuk persatuan Nusantara untuk melawan imperialisme ssat itu (Sri Wintala, 2014).

Meskipun Sultan Baabullah telah mengusir Portugis dari wilayah Indonesia Timur, ia masih melanjutkan hubungan perdagangan dengan bangsa Barat termasuk Portugis, namun tanpa pemberian hak istimewa. Para pedagang Barat diperlakukan sama dengan pedagang-pedagang dari Negeri lain. Bahkan, Sultan Baabullah mengeluarkan peraturan yang mewajibkan setiap bangsa Eropa di Ternate untuk melepaskan topi dan sepatu. Hal ini dimaksudkan, agar mereka tidak lupa diri. Bangsa Eropa sebagai tamu haruslah menghormati pribumi Nusantara yang menjadi tuan rumahnya. Bukan malah berlaku ‘congkak’ mengangkat kepala bak seorang Koboi dalam Film Hollywood. Sekali lagi, rakyat Nusantara adalah tuan rumah di Negerinya.

 

Sumber:

Yatim, Badri. 2006. Sejarah Peradaban Islam. Jakarta:Rajawali Pers.

Sri Wintala Achmad dan Krisna Bayu Adji. 2014. Ensiklopedia Raja-Raja Nusantara. Yogyakarta:Araska.

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