Islam Nusantara Sebagai Kearifan Lokal

Nilai Universalitas Islam

Islam sebagai suatu sistem ajaran keagamaan seringkali dipahami sebagai sesuatu yang datang dari langit dalam keadaan telah sempurna, bersifat sakral dan tidak menerima perubahan. Ajaran ini diyakini cocok untuk segala keadaan dimana pun atau shalihun li-kulli zamanin wa-makanin, karena bersifat universal. Pertanyaan kemudian timbul mengenai kecocokannya untuk segala keadaan, mengingat bahwa keadaan tidak tetap dan berubah dari satu masa kemasa yang lain. Selain itu ternyata pula bahwa apa yang diyakini sebagai ajaran Islam sangatlah lengkap dan terinci tidak akan dapat sesuai dengan keadaan yang berbeda-beda. Kelengkapan dan kerinciannya akan melengkapi keluwesannya.

Keuniversalan Islam semestinya ada pada hal-hal yang mendasar, sementara untuk hal-hal yang terperinci dimungkinkan adanya penyesuaian sepanjang tidak menyalahi hal-hal yang bersifat dasar. Kecocokan Islam untuk segala zaman dan tempat berarti kemungkinannya untuk tetap mempertahankan hal-hal pokok dengan memberikan ruang bagi penyesuaian-penyesuaian terhadap keadaan yang berbeda. Akan tetapi, orang tidak sepakat mengenai bagian-bagian mana yang dianggap dasar, sehingga tidak boleh dirubah.

Tidak hanya mengandung ajaran yang mengikat melainkan dibalik ajaran-ajaran tersebut terdapat nilai dan tujuan sebagai visi agama. Tujuan tersebut berlaku bagi setiap manusia sehingga akan mencakup terhadap segala aspek kehidupan manusia atau dikenal dalam Islam sebagai maqasid asy syari’at (tujuan hukum syari’at) yang berupa jaminan-jaminan bagi manusia, yakni jaminan keselamatan hidup manusia dari tindakan badani di luar ketentuan hukum, keselamatan keyakinan agama masing-masing individu tanpa ada paksaan untuk berpindah agama, kesalamatan keluarga dan keturunan, kesalamatan harta benda dan milik pribadi dari gangguan atau penggusuran diluar prosedur hukum, dan keselamatan hak milik dan profesi.

Manusia menjadi mahkluk yang mulia dalam agama. Tidak terdapat ajaran Islam yang samata untuk menindas manusia dan merusak alam semesta, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Islam mempunyai kepedulian tinggi bagi umat manusia sehingga konsep Islam sebagai rahmat (kasih sayang Allah) bagi seluruh umat manusia tidak secara eksplisit disebutkan dalam al Qur’an. yang disebut secara eksplisit dengan tujuan itu adalah keterutusan Nabi Muhammad SAW. Akan tetapi, karena Islam adalah agama yang dibawa oleh beliau dan merupakan wujud nyata dari keterutusan beliau, terbangunnya konsep itu didalam Islam mempunyai dasar yang kuat. Adanya para utusan tersebut sebagai bukti rahmat Allah diperuntukkan terhadap seluruh umat manusia.

Universalitas Islam mejadikan nilai subtantif sebagai tujuan utama tidak pada bentuk formalitas Islam. Nilai subtantif dimanifestasikan dalam segala bentuk peribadatan untuk kemaslahatan manusia, yang meliputi fiqh, tauhid, dan ahklak tasawuf. Manifestasi dalam bentuk ajaran berupa ritual keagamaan tidak hanya berkaitan dengan hubungan manusia dengan Allah akan tetapi hubungan manusia dengan manusia dan alam. Islam mengatur tindak tanduk hubungan tersebut. Bentuk ritual keagaman yang berkaitan dengan lokalitas kerap kali akan mengalami perubahan sesuai dengan kondisi sosialnya, akan tetapi tidak demikian dengan ritualitas yang tidak ada kaitannya dengan lokalitas sehingga dimanapun dan kapanpun tidak berpengaruh terhadap eksistensi manusia dan tidak terdapat dikotomi dengan nilai universalitas Islam yang subtansial.

 

Pergumulan Islam dengan Budaya Lokal

Untuk membumikan nilai universalitas Islam tidak cukup dengan bentuk teoritis, melainkan harus dimanifestasikan dalam sebuah tindakan sehingga nilai subtantif akan diaplikasikan dalam bentuk simbol yang berbeda yang kesemuanya menganggap sebagai bentuk konkrit agama. Sejarah mengatakan adanya perbedaan ritual dalam Islam mengindikasikan bahwa terdapat dialektika Islam dengan lokalitas sehingga memungkinkan ketentuan hukum yang juga berbeda. Budaya lokal sangat berpengaruh dalam relevansi ajaran Islam dengan lokalitas. Tak heran ketika mengetahui terdapat budaya lokal yang seleksi sebagai ajaran Islam seperti puasa dan nikah yang dulunya merupakan budaya Arab sebelum turunnya Islam.

Sejarah umat Islam mengalami perubahan dari masa kemasa yang tentu sesuai kondisi sosialnya. Pada awal penyebaran Islam, hukum dan ajaran Islam digantungkan pada Rasul sebagai sumber utama beserta wahyu-Nya. Sehingga segala persoalan keagamaan dihadapkan kepada Rasul. Akan tetapi jawaban Rasul kadang berbeda dalam menjawab satu pertanyaan yang sama ditempat yang berbeda. Seperti pertanyaan sahabat yang sama tentang perbuatan yang paling utama untuk dilakukan, Rasul menjawab ‘shodaqoh’ perbuatan yang paling utama. Namun ditempat lain dengan pertanyaan yang sama, Rasul menjawab ‘shalat’. Hal serupa juga terjadi pada masa Khulafa’ur Rasyidin yang menjadi pengganti pemimpin Daulah Islamiyah setelah wafatnya nabi. Hukum kewajiban memberi zakat kepada muallaf dimasa Khalifah Abu Bakar menjadi tidak terjadi pada Khalifah Umar bin Khattab.

Adanya temporasi atau jangka waktu dengan kondisi sosial yang berubah menurut Muhammad Said Asymawi harus ada tinjauan hukum sehingga harus mengkaji terhadap kondisi sosialnya. Pada saat inilah terdapat pergumulan Islam dengan lokalitas. Sehingga menuntut untuk membawa hukum yang bersumber dari al Qur’an dan al Hadits di dialekkan dengan sosio historis dan kemudian memungkinkan menimbulkan hukum yang berbeda pula. Hal serupa juga pernah dilakukan Imam Asy Syafi’i dengan perbedaan Ijtihadnya pada tempat yang berbeda, dengan bentuk qaul al jadid ketika di Mesir dan qaul al qadhim saat di Baghdad, dengan penggalian hukum yang berbeda.

Di Indonesia pergumulan Islam dengan budaya lokal berawal dari awal penyabaran Islam. Ada yang mengatakan Islam masuk melalui para saudagar dari Gujarat dan menyebarkannya kepada para penduduk, sehingga proses penyebaran ini dikatan tepat karena Islam langsung bergumul dengan budaya lokal. Lain halnya dengan agama Hindu-Budha yang dikatakan masuknya melalui kerajaan sehingga memungkinkan adanya penyeragaman agama dalam suatu kerajaan dan hukum agama hanya sebagai legitimasi kekuasaan kerajaan. Hal ini yang menurut Naquib al Atthas sebagai bentuk kegagalan Hindu-Budha dalam bergumul dengan budaya lokal, sebaliknya Islam yang merupakan agama belakangan di Indonesia menjadi dominan setelah tumbangnya kerajaan Hindu-Budha dan manjadi agama mayoritas rakyat Indonesia hingga saat ini.

Pergumulan Islam dengan budaya lokal di Indonesia telah melewati era kondisi sosial Indonesia dari era jajahan. Islam juga turut andil dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Tak pelak tidak sedikit para pahlawan Indonesia dari golongan Kiai (tokoh agama Islam) dengan organisasi kemasyarakatan Nahdhatul Ulama, Persis, Masumi, dan Muhammadiyah mampu manyatukan bangsa Indonesia dari jajahan. Hingga era kemerdekaan, Organisasi Islam juga ikut terjun dalam dunia politik untuk turut menentukan kebijakan pemerintah.

Akan tetapi persoalan keagamaan saat ini ada pada masalah kehilangan identitas. Islam di Indonesia kerapa kali menggunakan budaya Luar sebagai dasar pemahaman mereka terhadap Islam, baik dari Timur Tengah (Arabisme) maupun dari Barat (liberalisme Eropa). Hal ini yang kemudian menjadikan pergumulan Islam dengan budaya Nusantara mengalami krisis. Budaya lokal sudah banyak ditinggalkan sehingga krisis identitas menjadi persoalan bagi bangsa Indonesia. Bagaimana cocok pemahaman Islam dikondisi yang berbeda di luar Nusantara hendak dipaksakan sebagai pemahaman Islam di Nusantara.

 

Pembentukan Islam Nusantara

Hadirnya Islam Nusantara memiliki implikasi besar dan mendalam terhadap kehidupan bermasyarakat dan berbangsa. Ditandai antara lain: pertama, dengan kuatnya hubungan agama dengan tradisi dan bumi yang dipijak (tanah air) maka sejak awal Islam gigih menolak kehadiran imperialisme atau penjajahan bangsa Asing. Bahkan Pesantren dijadikan basis perlawanan terhadap imperialisme: baik imperialisme politik maupun imperialisme kebudayaan berupa hedonisme dan konsumerisme.

Kedua, sejak awal Islam Nusantara turut aktif dalam membela kemerdekaan, mendirikan negara termasuk ikut menyusun konstitusi yang bersifat nasional dan tetap berpijak pada agama dan tradisi, sehingga lahirlah Pancasila sebagai konsensus bersama menjelang bangsa ini merdeka. Ketiga, dengan kecintaaannya pada tradisi dan tanah air, Islam Nusantara terbukti dalam sejarah bahwa Islam ini tidak pernah memberontak terhadap pemerintah yang absah, karena pemberontakan dianggap pengkhiatan terhadap negara yang telah dibangun bersama.

Dengan kenyataan ini, ada baiknya jika jaringan Islam Nusantara yang telah terbentuk selama beberapa abad itu diaktualisasikan kembali. Ini akan lebih kuat ketika seluruh organisiasi Islam Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah yang memangku Islam Nusantara bersatu melakukan kerja sama. Ini bukan sebagai langkah mundur, justru sebagai pijakan untuk maju ke depan. Semakin jauh rancangan kita ke depan dituntut untuk mencari pijakan yang kuat agar loncatan kita sampai pada arah yang dituju. Dengan memiliki akar dan legitimasi tradisi itu program yang kita rencanakan untuk membangun Islam yang toleran, dan apresiatif terhadap budaya lokal serta peduli terhadap nasib masyarakat setempat akan tercapai. Islam yang diperkenalkan bukan Islam yang mengancam, tetapi Islam yang memberikan pengharapan, memberikan perlindungan dan memberikan dorongan serta motivasi untuk kehidupan, baik dunia dan akhirat. Di situlah peran para rohaniawan/ para Ulama sangat dibutuhkan agar kehidupan yang dibangun Iebih berisi dan Iebih bermakna.

Sebagaimana sering disingung dalam buku sejarah bahwa Islam datang ke Nusantara disiarkan oleh para saudagar dari Gujarat dan Kurdistan, bahkan dari Champa dan Cina, bukan langsung dan Arab. Kenyatan ini sering disalah tafsiri, dianggap Islam yang datang ke Nusantara tidak murni bahkan dekaden, karena tercemar oleh berbagai tradisi yang dilalui. Demikian pandangan menyesatkan dari para orientalis dan akademisi pada umumnya. Sebaliknya, dalam pandangan kelompok Ahlus Sunnah, Islam yang datang ke Nusantara melalui berbagai negara tersebut merupakan Islam yang sangat matang, Islam yang sudah sangat berpengalaman dalam menghadapi berbagai budaya dan tradisi yang dilewati seperti tradisi Persia, India, Cina dan sebagainya, sehingga ketika masuk ke Nusantara mereka bisa menyusun strategi dakwah yang tepat. Karena itu, nyaris tidak ada konflik dalam penyiaran agama, bahkan agama baru ini bisa diterima di berbagai pusat kekuasaan.

Oleh : Yahya Sultoni (Mantan Ketua Rayon PMII Ushuluddin dan Filsafat 2012)

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